The original version of the salad was invented in 1860 by Lucien Olivier, chef at the Hermitage, one of the most famous restaurants in Moscow. Olivier Salad quickly became very popular among the regulars to the hermitage, and became a signature dish of the restaurant.
The exact recipe - especially the dressing - was a closely guarded secret, but we know that the salad contained grouse, veal tongue, caviar, lettuce, crayfish tails, capers, smoked duck breast, but it is possible that the recipe was varied seasonally.
The original Olivier dressing was a type of mayonnaise, made with French wine vinegar, mustard and olive oil, Provençal, and its exact recipe remains unknown.
By the early 20th century, Olivier tried a sous-chefs, Ivan Ivanov, to steal the recipe. While preparing the dressing one night in solitude as usual, Olivier was suddenly called away on some emergency. Taking advantage of the opportunity, Ivanov sneaked into the kitchen and watched her Olivier private development, which enabled him to make reasonable assumptions about the recipe for dressing famous Olivier. Ivanov then left Olivier recruited and went to work as head of Moscow, a restaurant somewhat lower, where he began making a suspiciously similar salad under the name "Capital Salad" (Russian: Столичный "Stolichny"). It has been reported by the gourmands of the time, however, that the dressing over the salad Stolichny were of lower quality than Olivier's opinion that it was "something was missing."
Later, Ivanov sold the recipe for salad with various publishers, who continue to contribute to its disclosure. Since the closure of the Hermitage restaurant in 1905 and the departure of Olivier's family from Russia, a salad might now be called "Olivier".
One of the first printed recipes for salad Olivier, by Aleksandrova, appearing in 1894, ordered a hazelnut half cock, two potatoes, one small onion (large or brine), 3-4 lettuce leaves, three crayfish tails high, a cup / 4 gelatin cubes, 1 teaspoon of capers and olives and 3-5 tablespoon vinaigrette 02.11 Provence (mayonnaise).
As inevitably happens gourmet recipes, which will become popular as a salad of raw materials, which were rare, expensive, seasonal, or difficult to prepare foods gradually replaced by cheaper and more readily available, until it evolved into the pot we know today.
Previously, always involved a cold meats like ham or tongue, or fish. Half of the 20 th century restaurant version involved not only vegetables, but also language marinades, sausage, lobster, truffles, etc., garnished with capers, anchovy fillets, etc. Some versions of the mold, is gelatin.
A multitude of other versions, the name, the name, and there is even a brand, but only Stolichny salad Olivier entered the common language of post-Soviet states.
The salad is very popular in Bulgaria, Serbia and Macedonia, where he is also called "руска салата" (Ruska Salat), which literally means "Russian salad" and Greece, where it can be found at almost every restaurant menu . The Bulgarian version of the salad usually consists of potatoes, carrots, peas, pickles and a kind of salami or ham. The Greek text does not usually meat. It is also very popular in Iran where it is usually made with potatoes, eggs, cucumbers, carrots, chicken, peas and mayonnaise, and often charge a sandwich. It is also widely consumed in Spain (where it is called rusa ensaladilla and presents itself as a tapa in the bars), where it usually consists of boiled potatoes, chopped, cooked carrots chopped, canned tuna, hard boiled eggs chopped, peas, roasted red pepper strips, green olives and mayonnaise. This has some similarity with the versions of Macedonia Cold pulses.
Celebration of Russia and post-Soviet states are homemade versions of the traditional and the chef even whim. They are constructed on the basis of peas, carrots, cucumbers and / or pickles, and fries with mayonnaise, converted into all kinds of herbal ingredients such as peppers, tomatoes, etc., and usually completed in one flesh, Bologna-style sausages, poultry , or ingredient of fish.
Eastern European cafes and delicatessens often offer a variety of salads like Olivier, ranging from fair to gourmet. In addition, cafeterias, convenience stores and truck stops to sell a series of factory packaged versions of sub-par or manufactured locally, mostly very simple, low quality, basic ingredients flooded a lot of mayonnaise well. These versions of junk food could be compared to U.S. microwave burrito in the proliferation and the scale, original contemporary and authentic product.
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